CFI Instrument Practical Test Standards, FAA-S-8081-9B, June 2001

VII. Navigation Systems

B. Holding Procedures

To determine that the applicant
  1. Exhibits instructional knowledge of holding procedures by describing
      a. Setting of aircraft navigation equipment
        1) Record/readback holding clearance, including fix
        2) Tune appropriate NAVAID(s) to indentify holding fix
          a) VOR (After reaching fix twist OBS to inbound course)
          b) NDB
          c) Intersection (e.g., 2 VOR radials)
            i) Two VOR receivers
            • Tune one to VOR radial defining course to holding fix
            • Tune the other to VOR radial (FROM indication) defining intersection holding fix
            ii) Only one VOR recevier
            • Alternately tune each VOR
            • Tune to VOR radial defining course to fix
            • Established on course to fix, tune to VOR radial FROM that defines intersection
            • In hold, turning inbound, tune to VOR radial defining inbound leg
            • Established on inbound leg, tune to VOR radial FROM that indentifies intersection holding fix
          d) DME
          e) GPS/RNAV
      b. Requirement for establishing the appropriate holding airspeed for the aircraft and altitude
        1) Begin airspeed reduction to holding airspeed within 3 minutes prior to arriving at fix
        2) Recommend approach airspeed, e.g., C-TR182, 100 KIAS
        3) Standard maximum holding speeds
          a) 265 KIAS > 14,000 ft
          b) 230 KIAS 6,001 - 14,000 ft
          c) 200 KIAS MHA - 6,000 ft
        4) IFR chart icons depict nonstandard holding airspeeds

      Use HI to plan holding pattern entry: Holding Entry Aid

      c. Recognition of arrival at the holding fix and the prompt initiation of entry into the holding pattern
        1) Arrival at holding fix indicated by station passage (VOR, NDB), or arrival at intersection or waypoint (GPS/RNAV)
        2) FAA recommends direct, parallel or teardrop entry into the hold
          a) Direct - upon arrival at fix from DIRECT ENTRY sector (see image below), turn to follow the holding pattern
          b) Parallel - upon arrival at fix from PARALLEL ENTRY sector, turn to a heading parallel to holding course outbound on nonholding side for pproximately 1 minute, then turn more than 180° in direction of holding pattern and return direct to holding fix or intercept inbound course
          c) Teardrop - upon arrival at fix from TEARDROP ENTRY sector, turn outbound to a heading of 30° on holding side of inbound leg for approximately 1 minute, then turn in the direction of the holding pattern to intercept the inbound course

        Hold Entries
      d. Timing procedure
        1) Standard inbound leg duration
          a) 1½ minutes > 14,000 ft
          b) 1 minute < 14,000 ft
        2) Start outbound timing
          a) VOR: reversal of TO/FROM indicator
          b) Intersection: wings level after turn from fix
          c) NDB: abeam fix (RB to fix = 90 or 270° +/- WCA)
          d) DME: wings level after turn from fix
        3) Outbound leg duration
          a) Apply 2 x (inbound time deviation) for relatively small deviations (< 30 seconds)
          b) Apply ½ - 1 x (inbound time deviation) for large deviations
      e. Correction for wind drift
        1) Determine inbound wind correction angle (WCA)
        2) Apply 3 x WCA outbound for relatively small WCA (<15°)
        3) Apply 2 x WCA outbound for large WCA
      f. Use of DME in a holding pattern
        1) DME distance defines holding fix
        2) ATC specifies length of outbound leg
        3) Turn inbound when DME indicates outbound leg completed
      g. Compliance with ATC reporting requirements
        1) Report time and altitude reaching holding fix ("entering hold")
        2) Report leaving holding fix
  2. Exhibits instructional knowledge of common errors related to holding procedures by describing
      a. Incorrect setting of aircraft navigation equipment
        Visualize/draw hold to aid positional awareness
      b. Inappropriate altitude, airspeed and bank control
        Standard rate turns
      c. Improper timing
      d. Improper wind drift correction
      e. Failure to recognize holding fix passage
        Include navigation instruments in scan
      f. Failure to comply with ATC instructions
        Request clarification if uncertain
  3. Demonstrates and simultaneously explains holding procedures from an instructional standpoint
  4. Analyzes and corrects simulated common errors related to holding procedures

14 CFR Part 91
Aviation Instructor's Handbook, FAA-H-8083-9
Instrument Flying Handbook, FAA-H-8083-15, 1999
Instrument Rating PTS, FAA-S-8081-4D, April 2004

Greg Gordon MD, CFII