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CFI Instrument Practical Test Standards, FAA-S-8081-9B, June 2001

VI. Flight by Reference to Instruments

The examiner shall select TASK H and at least one other TASK. The applicant shall select either the primary and supporting or control and performance method for teaching this AREA OF OPERATION.

C. Change of Airspeed in Straight-and-Level and Turning Flight

To determine that the applicant
  1. Exhibits instructional knowledge of teaching change of airspeed in straight-and-level flight and turns by describing
      a. Procedure using full panel and partial panel for maintaining altitude and changing airspeed in straight-and-level and turning flight
        Full panel
          Airspeed change in SLF
          • Use known power settings (MP, RPM) for desired airspeeds and gear/flap configurations
          • As power is changed MP(RPM) is primary power instrument
          • Change to known power setting
          • If more rapid speed change needed, use underpower or overpower: change MP(RPM) more than required and readjust as desired airspeed is reached
          • Maintain SLF as airspeed changes
            • Airspeed decrease: pitch increase, trim
            • Airspeed increase: pitch decrease, trim
          • Maintain centered ball
            • Airspeed decrease: less right (more left) rudder, trim
            • Airspeed increase: more right (less left) rudder, trim
          • As desired airspeed reached, ASI primary for power

          Airspeed change in SLF - Full panel
          Pitch Bank Power
          Primary ALT HI MP(RPM) -> ASI
          Secondary AI, VSI AI, TC ASI -> MP(RPM)

          Airspeed change in turn
          • Requires rapid cross check and interpretation plus smooth control
          • Pitch and power: same as in airspeed change in SLF
          • Bank angle must be varied in direct proportion to airspeed change to maintain constant rate of turn
            • Airspeed decrease: decrease bank, increase ptich, trim
            • Airspeed increase: increase bank, decrease ptich, trim
          • Easier to change airspeed after turn is established

          Airspeed change in turn - Full panel
          Pitch Bank Power
          Primary ALT TC MP(RPM) -> ASI
          Secondary AI, VSI AI ASI -> MP(RPM)

        Partial panel (AI and HI inoperative)
          Airspeed change in SLF - partial panel
          Airspeed change in SLF - Partial panel
          Pitch Bank Power
          Primary ALT TC -> MC MP(RPM) -> ASI
          Secondary VSI TC ASI -> MP(RPM)

          Airspeed change in turn - partial panel
          • TC and MC only bank instruments
          • Recommend: two steps easier:
            1. Turn to desired heading
            2. Change to desired airspeed

          Airspeed change in turn - Partial panel
          Pitch Bank Power
          Primary ALT TC MP(RPM) -> ASI
          Secondary VSI MC ASI -> MP(RPM)

      b. Coordination of controls and trim technic
      • Centered ball
      • Trim to relieve control pressures
  2. Exhibits instructional knowledge of common errors related to changes of airspeed in straight-and-level and turning flight by describing
      a. Slow or improper cross-check during straight-and-level flight and turns
      • Increase rate of cross check during speed changes
      • Anticipate need to adjust pitch and bank and trim
      b. Improper power control
      • MP(RPM) primary for power during airspeed change until desired airspeed approached, then ASI primary for power
      • Use known power settings for specific airspeeds and gear/flap configurations
      c. Failure to make smooth, precise corrections as required
      • Aim for precision: heading +/- 2, airspeed +/- 2 knots, altitude +/- 20 feet
      • Beware overcontrolling
      • Use two step corrections
        1. Just enough control pressure to stop needle movement
        2. A bit more to start smooth correction
      d. Uncoordinated use of controls
      • Centered ball
      e. Improper trim technic
      • Trim to relieve control pressures
      • Small, frequent adjustments
  3. Demonstrates and simultaneously explains changes of airspeed in straight-and-level and turning flight from an instructional standpoint
  4. Analyzes and corrects simulated common errors related to changes of airspeed in straight-and-level and turning flight

References
Aviation Instructor's Handbook, FAA-H-8083-9
Instrument Flying Handbook, FAA-H-8083-15, 1999
Instrument Rating PTS, FAA-S-8081-4D, April 2004


Greg Gordon MD, CFII
Updated: