CFI Instrument Practical Test Standards, FAA-S-8081-9B, June 2001

VI. Flight by Reference to Instruments

The examiner shall select TASK H and at least one other TASK. The applicant shall select either the primary and supporting or control and performance method for teaching this AREA OF OPERATION.

B. Turns

To determine that the applicant
  1. Exhibits instructional knowledge of teaching turns by describing
      a. The relationship of true airspeed and angle of bank to a standard rate turn
        Angle of bank for standard rate turn (3° per second) varies with TAS
      b. Technic and procedure using full panel and partial panel for entry and recovery of a constant rate turn, including the performance of a half-standard rate turn
        Full panel
      Constant Airspeed Standard Rate Turn
        1. Turn entry
          • Smooth, coordinated aileron and rudder pressure
          • AI to approximate bank angle for standard (or half-standard) rate, then
          • TC primary bank reference (standard or half-standard rate)
          • ALT, VSI, AI for slight increase pitch
          • Constant airspeed
            • ASI primary power
            • Slight increase MP
          • Trim off control pressure
        2. Turn, constant airspeed, standard or half-standard rate

          Turn, constant airspeed - Full panel
          Pitch Bank Power
          Primary ALT TC ASI
          Secondary AI, VSI AI MP, RPM

          • Watch for, correct overbanking tendency
        3. Turn recovery
          • Lead roll out by approximately ½ bank angle
          • Coordinated aileron and rudder pressure
          • AI first, then HI primary for bank
          • Adjust pitch, power, trim as needed
        Parial panel (AI and HI inoperative)
        1. Turn entry
        2. Turn

          Turn, constant airspeed - Partial panel
          Pitch Bank Power
          Primary ALT TC ASI
          Secondary VSI MC MP, RPM

        3. Turn recovery
            May use timed turns to MC headings technic to determine roll out time
            Coordinated aileron and rudder pressure to level TC airplane with centered ball
            Resume partial panel SLF cross check
      c. Coordination of controls and trim
      • maintain centered ball
      • trim to relieve control pressures
  2. Exhibits instructional knowledge of common errors related to turns by describing
      a. Improper cross-check procedures
        Preoccupation with bank control during turn entry - check pitch, power and trim as you roll into turn
        Rate of turn entry (and roll out) should be only as fast as your cross check
        Failure to resume/maintain SLF cross check after roll out from turn
        Fixation on HI early in turn (may leave HI out of cross check until approaching roll out lead heading)
        Check for AI precession after roll out (center ball, stop HI change)
        Check ASI with any pitch change
        Use selective cross check - check what needs to be checked when it needs to be checked
      b. Improper bank control during roll-in and roll-out
        Overcontrolling, overbanking leads to overshooting and undershooting headings as well as pitch, airspeed and trim errors
        Fixation on HI
        Failure to use proper bank
        Failure to check ball in TC
      c. Failure to make smooth, precise corrections as required
        Aim for 2/2/20 (heading/airspeed/altitude variance)
        Frequent, small corrections
        First stop undesired needle movement, then make slow correction
      d. Uncoordinated use of controls
        Maintain centered ball
      e. Improper trim technic
        Trim to relieve control pressures
        Frequent small adjustments
  3. Demonstrates and simultaneously explains turns from an instructional standpoint
  4. Analyzes and corrects simulated common errors related to turns

Aviation Instructor's Handbook, FAA-H-8083-9
Instrument Flying Handbook, FAA-H-8083-15, 1999
Instrument Rating PTS, FAA-S-8081-4D, April 2004

Greg Gordon MD, CFII