Difficult Airway References
ASA Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway: Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway. Anesthesiology 78:597-602, 1993

ASA Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway: Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway, an updated report. Anesthesiology 98:1269-77, 2003

Cormack RS, Lehane J: Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics. Anaesthesia 39:1105, 1984
Laryngoscopy Grades - Figure

Benumof JL: Management of the difficult airway: the ASA algorithm. ASA Refresher Courses in Anesthisiology 22: 39-63, 1994

Brimacombe JR, Berry A. The incidence of aspiration associated with the laryngeal mask airway: a metaanalysis of published literature. J Clin Anesth 7(4):297-305, 1995

Boysen PG, Mahla ME: Fiberoptic instrumentation for airway management. ASA Refresher Courses in Anesthesiology 22:77-86, 1994

Chung F, Yegneswaran B, Herrera F, Shenderey A, Shapiro CM. Patients with Difficult Intubation May Need Referral to Sleep Clinics. Anesth Analg 107:915-920, 2008

Engel TP, Applegate RL, Chung DM, and Sanchez A. Management of the Difficult Airway. 2nd Edition. Cook Inc. at http://www.gasnet.org/airway/airway.htm, 2001

Frei FJ, Ummenhofer W: Clinical review: Difficult intubation in paediatrics. Paediatric Anaesthesia 6:251-263, 1996

Goskowicz R, Colt HG, Voulelis LD: Fiberoptic tracheal intubation using a nipple guide. Anesthesiology 85:1210-1211, 1996
Nipple Guide - Figure

Gupta B, McDonald JS, Brooks JHJ, Mendenhall J: Oral fiberoptic intubation over a retrograde guidewire. Anesh Analg 68:517-519, 1989

Holm-Knudsen R, Eriksen K, Rasmussen LS: Using a nasopharyngeal airway during fiberoptic intubation in small children with a difficult airway. Pediatric Anesthesia 15(10):839, 2005

Kheterpal S, Han R, Tremper KK, Shanks A, Tait AR, O'Reilly M, Ludwig TA. Incidence and predictors of difficult and impossible mask ventilation. Anesthesiology 105:885-91, 2006

Mallampati SR, Gatti SP, Gugino LD: A clinical sign to predict difficult intubation: a prospective study. Can Anaesth Soc J 32:429-434, 1985
Mallampati Classes - Figure

Marks JD, Bogetz MS: New concepts in the management of the difficult airway. Clinical Anesthesia Updates 5(3): 1-11, 1994

Ovassapian A, Dykes MHM: The role of fiber-optic endoscopy in airway management. Seminars in Anesthesia VI(2):93-104, 1987

Parmet JL, Colonna-Romano P, Horrow JC, Miller F, Gonzales J, Rosenberg H. The laryngeal mask airway reliably provides rescue ventilation in cases of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation along with difficult mask ventilation. Anesth Analg 87(3):661-665, 1998

Somu N, Vijayasekaran D, Ashok TP, Balachandran A, Subramanyam L: Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in 582 children: value of route, sedation and local anesthesic. Indian Pediatr 32(5):543-547, 1995

Zahid HK, Kashfi A, and Ebrahimkhani E. A Comparison of the Upper Lip Bite Test (a Simple New Technique) with Modified Mallampati Classification in Predicting Difficulty in Endotracheal Intubation: A Prospective Blinded Study. Anesth Analg 96:595-599, 2003

Sutera PT, Gordon GJ: Digitally assisted tracheal intubation in a neonate with Pierre Robin syndrome. Anesthesiology 78:983-985, 1993

Yentis, SM. Predicting trouble in airway management. Anesthesiology 105:871-2, 2006

Greg Gordon MD